The previous six chapters identified a variety of tools to overcome barriers to a sustainable behavior that reside within an individual. As powerful as these tools are, they will be ineffective if the behavior is inconvenient. If the behavior is unpleasant or time-consuming, for example, no matter how well you address internal barriers your community-based social marketing strategy will be unsuccessful.

The first step to removing external barriers is to identify them. Using the techniques outlined in the chapter on barriers and benefits, attempt to isolate what external barriers exist and what can be done to address them. The City of Boulder, Colorado, for example, identified that two significant barriers to mass transit usage were workers’ concerns regarding how they would get home quickly in an emergency (e.g., a sick child that has to come home from school) and, for women, safety concerns about taking mass transit late at night…

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