Fostering Sustainable Behavior

  1. Bem, D.J. (1972). “Self-perception theory.” In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 63-108). New York: Academic.
  2. Dietz, T., Gardner, G.T., Gilligan, J., Stern, P., & Vandenbergh, M.P. (2009). “Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(44), 18452-18456.
  3. Geller, E.S. (1981). “Evaluating energy conservation programs: Is verbal report enough?” Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 331-335.
  4. Midden, C. J., Meter, J. E., Weenig, M. H., & Zieverink, H. J. (1983). “Using feedback, reinforcement and information to reduce energy consumption in households: A field-experiment.” Journal of Economic Psychology, 3, 65-86.
  5. Jordan, J. R., Hungerford, H. R., & Tomera, A. N. (1986). “Effects of two residential environmental workshops on high school students.” Journal of Environmental Education, 18, 15-22.
  6. Geller, E. S., Erickson, J. B., & Buttram, B. A. (1983). “Attempts to promote residential water conservation with educational, behavioral and engineering strategies.” Population and Environment, 6, 96-112.
  7. Environment Canada. (2006). Evaluation of the one-tonne challenge program. Available online at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/ae-ve/F2F5FD59-3DDA-46BC-A62E-C29FDD61E2C5/EvaluationReport-OTC-Eng.doc.
  8. Tedeschi, R. G., Cann, A., & Siegfried, W. D. (1982). “Participation in voluntary auto emissions inspection.” Journal of Social Psychology, 117, 309-310.
  9. Bickman, L. (1972). “Environmental attitudes and actions.” Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 323-324.
  10. Finger, M. (1994). “From knowledge to action? Exploring the relationships between environmental experiences, learning, and behavior.” Journal of Social Issues, 50, 141-160.
  11. Archer, D., Pettigrew, T., Costanzo, M., Iritani, B., Walker, I. & White, L. (1987). “Energy conservation and public policy: The mediation of individual behavior.” Energy Efficiency: Perspectives on Individual Behavior, 69-92.
  12. De Young, R. (1989). “Exploring the difference between recyclers and non-recyclers: The role of information.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 18, 341-351.
  13. Costanzo, M., Archer, D., Aronson, E., & Pettigrew, T. (1986). “Energy conservation behavior: The difficult path from information to action.” American Psychologist, 41, 521-528.
  14. Hirst, E. (1984). “Household energy conservation: A review of the federal residential conservation service.” Public Administration Review, 44, 421-430.
  15. Hirst, E., Berry, L., & Soderstrom, J. (1981). “Review of utility home energy audit programs. Energy, 6, 621-630.
  16. Hirst, E. (1984). Household energy conservation: A review of the federal residential conservation service.” Public Administration Review, 44, 421-430.
  17. Stern, P.C., & Aronson, E. (Eds.). (1984). “Energy use: The human dimension.” New York: Freeman.
  18. Larson, M. A. & Massetti-Miller, K. L. (1984). “Measuring change after a public education campaign.” Public Relations Review, 10, 23-32.
  19. Pope, E. (1982, December 10). “PG&E’s loans aimed at poor miss the mark.” San Jose Mercury, p. 6B.
  20. Costanzo, M., Archer, D., Aronson, E., & Pettigrew, T. (1986). “Energy conservation behavior: The difficult path from information to action.” American Psychologist, 41, 521-528.
  21. Costanzo, M., Archer, D., Aronson, E., & Pettigrew, T. (1986). “Energy conservation behavior: The difficult path from information to action.” American Psychologist, 41, 521-528.
  22. Stern, P.C., & Oskamp, S. (1987). “Managing scarce environmental resources.” In D. Stokols, & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology (pp. 1043-1088). New York: Wiley.
  23. McKenzie-Mohr, D., Nemiroff, L. S., Beers, L., & Desmarais, S. (1995). “Determinants of responsible environmental behavior.” Journal of Social Issues, 51, 139-156.
  24. Oskamp, S., Harrington, M.J., Edwards, T.C., Sherwood, D.L., Okuda, S.M., & Swanson, D.C. (1991). “Factors influencing household recycling behavior.” Environment and Behavior, 23, 494-519; and Tracy, A.P., & Oskamp, S. (1983-84). “Relationships among ecologically responsible behaviors.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 13, 115-126.

Step 1: selecting behaviors

  1. Natural Resources Canada (2010). Canada’s secondary energy use by sector, end-use and sub-sector. Available online at: http://oee.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/tableshandbook2/aaa_ca_2_e_4.cfm?attr=0
  2. Hargroves, K., Desha, C. & McKenzie-Mohr, D. (2009). Personal communication.
  3. Natural Resources Canada (2010). Total end-use sector. Energy use analysis. Available online at: http://oee.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/tablesanalysis2/aaa_ca_1_e_4.cfm?attr=0

Step 2: identifying Barriers and Benefits

  1. See, for example, Sudman, S. & Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking questions: A practical guide to questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  2. Fowler, Jr., F. J. (1984). Survey research methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, p. 101.
  3. McKenzie-Mohr, D., Nemiroff, L.S., Beers, L. & Desmarais, S. (1995). “Determinants of responsible environmental behavior.” Journal of Social Issues, 51, 139-156.

Commitment

  1. Freedman, J.L., & Fraser, S. C. (1966). “Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 195-202.
  2. Freedman, J.L., & Fraser, S. C. (1966). “Compliance without pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 195-202.
  3. Schwarzwald, J., Raz, M., & Zvibel, M. (1979). “The efficacy of the door-in-the-face technique when established behavioral customs exist.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 576-586.
  4. Sherman, S. J. (1980). “On the self-erasing nature of errors of prediction.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 211-221.
  5. Greenwald, A.G., Carnot, C.G., Beach, R., & Young, B. (1987). “Increasing voting behavior by asking people if they expect to vote.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 315-318.
  6. Lipsitz, A., Kallmeyer, K., Ferguson, M., & Abas, A. (1989). “Counting on blood donors: Increasing the impact of reminder calls.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 1057-1067.
  7. Pliner, P., Hart, H., Kohl, J., & Saari, D. (1974). “Compliance without pressure: Some further data on the foot-in-the-door technique.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 17-22.
  8. Boyce, T. E. & Geller, E.S. (2000). “A community-wide intervention to improve pedestrian safety: Guidelines for institutionalizing large-scale behavior change.” Environment and Behavior, 32(4), 502-520.
  9. Burger, J.M. (2000). “The foot in the door compliance procedure: A multiple-process analysis and review.” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3(4), 303-325.
  10. Michel-Guillou, E. & Moser, G. (2006). “Commitment of farmers to environmental protection: From social pressure to environmental conscience.” Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26, 227-235.
  11. Bem, D.J. (1972). “Self-perception theory.” In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 63-108). New York: Academic.
  12. Cialdini, R. B. (1993). Influence: Science and practice. New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.
  13. Moriarty, T. (1975). “Crime, commitment, and the responsive bystander.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 370-376.
  14. Gonzales, M.H., Aronson, E., & Costanzo, M.A. (1988). “Using social cognition and persuasion to promote energy conservation: A quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1049-1066.
  15. Shippee, G. E., & Gregory, W. L. (1982). “Public commitment and energy conservation.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 81-93.
  16. Phase 5 Consulting Group (1998). Research related to behavior that impacts fuel consumption. Natural Resources Canada: Ottawa, Canada.
  17. McKenzie-Mohr & Associates & Lura Consulting (2001). Turn it Off: Reducing vehicle engine idling. Environment Canada.
  18. Natural Resources Canada (2010). Toward and idle-free nation: The evolution of Canada’s idle-free initiative. Natural Resources Canada: Ottawa, Canada.
  19. Hutton, R.R. (1982). Advertising and the Department of Energy’s campaign for energy conservation. Journal of Advertising, 11, 27-39.
  20. Werner, C. M., Turner, J., Shipman, K., Twitchell, F. S., et al. (1995). “Commitment, behavior, and attitude change: An analysis of voluntary recycling.” Special Issue: Green psychology. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 197-208.
  21. Lokhorst, A.M., van Dijk, J., Staats, H., van Dijk, E & de Snoo, G. (2010). “Using tailored information and public commitment to improve the environmental quality of farm lands: An example from the Netherlands.” Human Ecology, 38, 113122
  22. Pardini, A.U., & Katzev, R.D. (1983-84). “The effects of strength of commitment on newspaper recycling.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 13, 245-254.
  23. Pallak, M.S., Cook, D.A., & Sullivan, J.J. (1980). “Commitment and energy conservation.” In L. Bickman (Ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual (pp. 235-253). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  24. Wang, T. H. & Katzev, R. D. (1990). “Group commitment and resource conservation: Two field experiments on promoting recycling.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 265-275.
  25. Gonzales, M.H., Aronson, E., & Costanzo, M.A. (1988). “Using social cognition and persuasion to promote energy conservation: A quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1049-1066.
  26. Stern, P.C., & Gardner, G.T. (1981). “Psychological research and energy policy.” American Psychologist, 36, 329-342.
  27. Burn, S.M., & Oskamp, S. (1986). “Increasing community recycling with persuasive communication and public commitment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 29-41.
  28. Burn, S.M. (1991). “Social psychology and the stimulation of recycling behaviors: The block leader approach.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 611-629.
  29. Kraut, R. E. (1973). “Effects of social labeling on giving to charity.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 551-562.

Social Norms

  1. Asch, S. (1951). “Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgment.” In M. H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, Leadership and Men (pp. 117-190). Pittsburgh: Carnegie.; and Asch, S. (1956). “Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority.” Psychological Monographs, 70 (9, Whole No. 416).
  2. Aronson, E., & O’Leary, M. (1982-83). “The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 219-224.
  3. Cialdini, R.B., Reno, R.R., & Kallgren, C.A. (1990). “A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015-1026.
  4. Cialdini, R.B. (2003). “Crafting normative messages to protect the environment.” Current Directions in Psychological Science. 105-109.
  5. Goldstein, N.J., Griskevicius, V., & Cialdini, R.B. (2007). “Invoking social norms: A social psychology perspective on improving hotel’s linen-reuse programs.” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(2), 145-150.
  6. Cialdini, R.B., Demaine, L.J., Sagarin, B.J., Barret, D.W., Rhoads, K. & Winter, P.L. (2006). “Managing social norms for persuasive impact.” Social Influence, 1(1), 3-15.
  7. Griskevicius, V.G., Cialdini, R.B., & Goldstein, N.H. (2008). “Social norms: An underestimated and underemployed lever for managing climate change.” International Journal of Sustainability Communication, 5-13.
  8. Cialdini, R.B., Demaine, L.J., Sagarin, B.J., Barret, D.W., Rhoads, K. & Winter, P.L. (2006). “Managing social norms for persuasive impact.” Social Influence, 1(1), 3-15.
  9. Schultz, P.W., Nolan, J.M., Cialdini, R.B., Goldstein, N.J., & Griskevikius, V. (2007). “The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms.” Psychological Science, 18 (5), 429-434.
  10. Ayres, I., Raseman, S., & Shih, A. (2009). Evidence from two large field experiments that peer comparison feedback can reduce residential energy usage. National Bureau of Economic Research (Report 15386).
  11. Hunt, A. (2010). Social Norms and Energy Conservation. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
  12. Hopper, J. R., & Nielsen, J. M. (1991). “Recycling as altruistic behavior: Normative and behavioral strategies to expand participation in a community recycling program.” Environment and Behavior, 23, 195-220.
  13. Grasmick, H.G., Bursik Jr., R. B. & Kinsey, K.A. (1991). “Shame and embarrassment as deterrents to noncompliance with the law: The case of the antilittering campaign.” Environment and Behavior, 22, 233-251.
  14. Aronson, E., & O’Leary, M. (1982-83). “The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 219-224.

Social Diffusion

  1. Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
  2. Aronson, E. & Gonzales, M. H. (1990). “Alternative social influence processes applied to energy conservation.” In J. Edwards, R.S. Tindale, L. Heath & E. J. Posaval (Ed.). Social influences processes and prevention. (pp. 301-325). New York: Plenum.
  3. Ester, P. & Winett, R. A. (1982). “Toward more effective antecedent strategies for environmental programs.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 3, 201-221.
  4. Aronson, E. & Gonzales, M. H. (1990). “Alternative social influence processes applied to energy conservation.” In J. Edwards, R.S. Tindale, L. Heath & E. J. Posaval (Ed.). Social influences processes and prevention. (pp. 301-325). New York: Plenum.
  5. Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
  6. Darley, J.M. (1977-78). “Energy conservation techniques as innovations, and their diffusion.” Energy and Buildings, 1, 339-343.
  7. Leonard-Barton, D. (1980). The role of interpersonal communication networks in the diffusion of energy conserving practices and technologies. Banff, Alberta, Canada: Consumer Behavior and Energy Use.
  8. Oskamp, S., Harrington, M. J., Edwards, T. C., Sherwood, D. L., Okuda, S. M., & Swanson, D. C. (1991). “Factors influencing household recycling behavior.” Environment and Behavior, 23, 4, 494-519.
  9. Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
  10. LaBay, D. G., & Kinnear, T. C. (1981). “Exploring the consumer decision process in the adoption of solar energy systems.” Journal of Consumer Research, 8(3), 271-278.
  11. Smith, W. (2004) “Ev Rogers: Helping to build a modern synthesis.” Journal of Health Communication, 9, 139-142.
  12. Ostlund, L. (1974). “Perceived innovation attributes as predictors of innovativeness.” Journal of Consumer Research, 1, 23-29.
  13. Ester, P. & Winett, R. A. (1982). “Toward more effective antecedent strategies for environmental programs.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 3, 201-221.
  14. Cobern, M. K., Porter, B.E., Leeming, F.C., & Dwyer, W.O. (1995). “The effect of commitment on adoption and diffusion of grass cycling.” Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27 (2), 213-232.
  15. Contact Su Beran at the Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance for more information (su.beran (at) moea.state.mn.us). This write-up is based on report prepared by Su Beran and April McGrath for the Fostering Sustainable Behavior website.
  16. Tyson, B., Worthley, T. & Danley, K. (2004). “Layering Natural Resource and Human Resource data for Planning Watershed Conservation Campaigns.” Society and Natural Resources. 17(2), 163-170.

Prompts

  1. Gardner, G. T. & Stern, P.C. (1996). Environmental problems and human behavior. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  2. Kurz, T., Donaghue, N. & Walker, I. (2005). “Utilizing a social-ecological framework to promote water and energy conservation: A field experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(6), 1281-1300.
  3. de Kort, Y.A., McCalley, L.T. & Midden, C.J. (2008). “Persuasive trash cans: Activation of littering norms by design.” Environment and Behavior, 40(6), 870-891.
  4. Duffy, S. & Verges, M. (2009). “It matters a hole lot: Perceptual affordances of waste containers influence recycling compliance.” Environment and Behavior, 41(5), 741-749.
  5. Smith, J. M., & Bennett, R. (1992). “Several antecedent strategies in the reduction of an environmentally destructive behavior.” Psychological Reports, 70, 241-242.
  6. Jason, L. A., Zolik, E. S., & Matese, F. J. (1979). “Prompting dog owners to pick up dog droppings.” American Journal of Community Psychology, 7(3), 339-351.
  7. O’Neill, G. W., Blanck, L. S., & Joyner, M. A. (1980). “The use of stimulus control over littering in a natural setting.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 379-381.
  8. Geller, E. S., Brasted, W. S., & Mann, M. F. (1979). “Waste receptacle designs as interventions for litter control.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 9, 145-160.
  9. Luyben, P. D. (1984). “Drop and tilt: A comparison of two procedures to increase the use of venetian blinds to conserve energy.” Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 149-154.
  10. Luyben, P. & Cummings, S. (1981-82). “Motivating beverage container recycling on a college campus.” Journal of Environmental Systems, 11, 235-245.
  11. Houghton, S. (1993). “Using verbal and visual prompts to control littering in high schools. Educational Studies, 19, 247-254.
  12. Austin, J., Hatfield, D. B., Grindle, A. C. & Bailey, J. S. (1993). Increasing recycling in office environments: The effects of specific, informative cues.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 247-253.
  13. Schwartz, J. (1990). “Shopping for a model community.” Garbage, May-June, 35-38.
  14. To obtain more information about this initiative, contact the Central States Education Center, 809 South Fifth St., Champaign, Illinois 61820, (217) 344 2371.
  15. Herrick, D. (1995). “Taking it to the stores: Retail sales of recycled products.” Resource Recycling.
  16. For additional information regarding the “Get in the Loop - Buy Recycled” campaign, contact: King County Commission for Marketing Recyclable Materials, 400 Yesler Way, Suite 200, Seattle, Washington, 98104, (206) 296 4439.
  17. Bach, C. (2000). Outdoor residential water reduction programs: Do they really work? Unpublished report.

Communication

  1. Stern, P.C., & Aronson, E. (Ed.). (1984). Energy use: The human dimension. New York: Freeman.
  2. Gonzales, M.H., Aronson, E., & Costanzo, M.A. (1988). “Using social cognition and persuasion to promote energy conservation: A quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1049-1066.
  3. Gonzales, M.H., Aronson, E., & Costanzo, M.A. (1988). “Using social cognition and persuasion to promote energy conservation: A quasi-experiment.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1049-1066.
  4. Burn, S.M. (1991). “Social psychology and the stimulation of recycling behaviors: The block leader approach.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 611-629.
  5. Kempton, W., & Montgomery, L. (1982). “Folk quantification of energy.” Energy, 10, 817-827.
  6. Kempton, W., Harris, C.K., Keith, J.G., & Weihl, J.S. (1984). “Do consumers know what works in energy conservation?” In J. Harris & C. Blumstein (Eds.), What works: Documenting energy conservation in buildings (pp. 429-438). Washington, D.C.: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.
  7. Kempton, W., & Montgomery, L. (1982). “Folk quantification of energy.” Energy, 10, 817-827.
  8. Eagly, A.H., & Chaiken, S. (1975). “An attributional analysis of the effect of communicator characteristics on opinion change: The case of communicator attractiveness.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 136-144.
  9. Craig, C.S., & McCann, J.M. (1978). “Assessing communication effects on energy conservation.” Journal of Consumer Research, 5, 82-88.
  10. Davis, J. J. (1995). “The effects of message framing on response to environmental communications.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72, 285-299.
  11. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
  12. McKenzie-Mohr, D., & Dyal, J. (1991). “Perceptions of threat, tactical efficacy and competing threats as determinants of pro-disarmament behavior.” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 675-696.
  13. Heckler, S. E. (1994). “The role of memory in understanding and encouraging recycling behavior. Special Issue: Psychology, marketing, and recycling.” Psychology and Marketing, 11, 375-392.
  14. Oskamp, S., Zelezny, L., Schultz, P. W., Hurin, S., Burkhardt, R. & O’Neil, E. (1994). Commingled versus separated curbside recycling and long-term participation. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Psychological Association.
  15. Jacobs, H. E., Bailey, J. S., & Crews, J. I. (1984). “Development and analysis of a community-based resource recovery program.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 127-145.
  16. Folz, D. H. (1991). “Recycling program design, management, and participation: A national survey of municipal experience.” Public Administration Review, 51, 222-231.
  17. Aronson, E., & Gonzales, M.H. (1990). “Alternative social influence processes applied to energy conservation.” In J. Edwards, R. S. Tindale, L. Heath, & E. J. Posaval (Eds.), Social Influences, Processes and Prevention (pp. 301-325). New York: Plenum.
  18. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  19. Winett, R.A., Hatcher, J.W., Fort, T.R., Leckliter, I.N., Love, S.Q., Riley, A.W., & Fishback, J.F. (1982). “The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 381-402.
  20. Winett, R.A., Leckliter, I.N., Chinn, D.E., Stahl, B., & Love, S.Q. (1985). “Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 33-44.
  21. Burn, S.M. (1991). “Social psychology and the stimulation of recycling behaviors: The block leader approach.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 611-629.
  22. Larson, M.E., Houlihan, D., & Goernert, P.N. (1995). “Brief report: Effects of informational feedback on aluminum can recycling.” Behavioral Interventions, 10, 111-117.
  23. Artz, N. & Cooke, P. (2007). “Using E-Mail Listservs to Promote Environmentally Sustainable Behaviors,” Journal of Marketing Communications, 13(4), 257-276.
  24. Seligman, C., & Darley, J. M. (1977). “Feedback as a means of decreasing residential energy consumption.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 363-368.
  25. DeLeon, I. G., & Fuqua, R. W. (1995). “The effects of public commitment and group feedback on curbside recycling.” Special Issue: Litter control and recycling. Environment and Behavior, 27, 233-250.
  26. Rothstein, R. N. (1980). “Television feedback used to modify gasoline consumption.” Behavior Therapy, 11, 683-688.

Incentives

  1. Federation of Canadian Municipalities. A municipal guide on economic instruments to support municipal waste management programs. Toronto, Ontario: Resource Integration Systems Ltd. (RIS).
  2. Recycling Council of Ontario (1996). Implementing Garbage User Fees in Ontario. Toronto, ON: Author.
  3. Federation of Canadian Municipalities. A municipal guide on economic instruments to support municipal waste management programs. Toronto, ON: Resource Integration Systems Ltd. (RIS).
  4. Institute of Applied Research (1980). Michigan Litter: After. Sacramento, California: Author.
  5. Levitt, L., & Leventhal, G. (1986). “Litter reduction: How effective is the New York State Bottle Bill?” Environment and Behavior, 18, 467-479.
  6. Centre & South Hastings Recycling Board (1995). Blue Box 2000: Breaking 50. Trenton, Ontario.
  7. Bamberg, S. (2006). “Is residential relocation a good opportunity to change people’s travel behavior? Results From a Theory-Driven Intervention Study.” Environment and Behavior, 38(6), 820-840.
  8. Conn, W.D. (2009). “Applying environmental policy instruments to used oil.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52(4), 457475.
  9. Cordeiro, J.J. & Sarkis, J. (2008). “Does explicit contracting effectively link CEO compensation to environmental performance?” Business Strategy and the Environment, 17, 304-317.
  10. Adachi, C. & Rowlands, I.H. (2010). “The role of policies in supporting the diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems: Experiences from Ontario, Canada’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer program.” Sustainability, 2, 30-47.
  11. Abrahamse, W., Steg, L. Vlek, C. & Rothengatter, T. (2005). “A review of intervention studies aimed at household conservation.” Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 273-291.
  12. Straka, T.J. Kilgore, M.A., Jacobson, M.G., Greene, J.L. & Daniels, S.E. (2007). “Influence of financial incentives programs in sustaining wildlife values.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12, 197-199.
  13. Sorice, M.G. & Conner, J. R. (2010). “Predicting private landowner intentions to enroll in an incentive program to protect endangered species.” Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 77-89.
  14. Van Vugt, M. (2001). “Community identification moderating the impact of financial incentives in a natural social dilemma: Water conservation.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(11), 1440-1449.
  15. Pucher, J. & Buehler, R. (2008). “Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.” Transport Reviews, 28(4). 495-528.
  16. Gardner, G. T. & Stern, P.C. (1996). “Environmental Problems and Human Behavior.” Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  17. Source unknown

Convenience

  1. McKenzie-Mohr, D., Nemiroff, L. S., Beers, L., & Desmarais, S. (1995). “Determinants of responsible environmental behavior.” Journal of Social Issues, 51, 139-156.
  2. Zuckermann, W. (1992). End of the Road: From world car crisis to sustainable transportation. Post Mills, Vermont: Chelsea Green.
  3. Hart, S. I. & Spivak, A. L. (1993). Automobile Dependence and Denial: The elephant in the bedroom. Pasadena, California: New Paradigm.
  4. Crosby, L.A., & Taylor, J.R. (1982). “Consumer satisfaction with Michigan’s container deposit - an ecological perspective.” Journal of Marketing, Winter, 47-60.
  5. Shaheen, S., Guzman, S. & Zhang, H. (2010). Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: Past, present, and future. Report available online: http://76.12.4.249/artman2/uploads/1/TRB10-Bikesharing.Final.pdf
  6. Erlanger, S. (2008). “A fashion catches on in Paris: Cheap bicycle rentals.” The New York Times. July 13.
  7. DeMaio, P. (2009). “Bike-Sharing: History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future.” Journal of Public Transportation, 12, 4, 41-56.
  8. Gardner, G. (2010). Power to the pedals. World Watch report. Available online at: www.worldwatch.org.
  9. Shaheen, S., Guzman, S. & Zhang, H. (2010). Bikesharing in Europe, the Americas, and Asia: Past, present, and future. Report available online: http://76.12.4.249/artman2/uploads/1/TRB10-Bikesharing.Final.pdf
  10. Waterloo Residential Waste Reduction Unit (1992). Backyard composter/digester participation pilot study. Waterloo, Ontario.

Piloting

  1. Lee, N. (2010). “Where’s the beef? Social marketing in tough times.” Journal of Social Marketing, 1(1).

Concluding Thoughts

  1. Olson, R. (1995). “Sustainability as a social vision.” Journal of Social Issues, 51(4), 15-35.

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